Virtual vegan potluck: Good ol’ home baked sourdough bread

October 31, 2012

The virtual vegan potluck home

Welcome y’all to my bread dish as part of this fantastic virtual potluck.  Today we are having an fig and walnut wholewheat/rye sourdough bread… mmmm

“All sorrows are less with bread.”
Miguel de Cervantes, Spanish author. (1547-1616)

I love baking sourdough breads.  The primary fermentation and secondary fermentation (resting/proofing) takes a bit of time, but the actual effort is minimal (about 15 minutes) and the end result is really worth it.

The flavour of the bread is so good, you can actually have it without any topping or spread because the bread actually tastes great.

The basic recipe below is the base for a sourdough loaf. Ingredients change according to the type of the bread, the mixing and fermentation are pretty much the same in all the breads and the last stage may change according to the size of the loaf.

Utensils

  • A pot with a lid (that can be used in the oven). A cast iron pot works well, a ceramic pot will also work – it must be suitable for oven baking at high temperatures with a capacity of about 3 – 5 litres/100 – 170 fl oz.
  • Mixing bowl – preferably glass or stainless steel with a lid or plastic bag to cover. I usually just cover it with a plate.
  • Pastry scraper or spatula.
  • Basket/mould in the shape of the pot/colander.
  • Cotton cloth big enough to cover the dough when proofing/old napkin will do.
  • Tea cloth to cover the resting dough.

Professional and discerning bakers weigh their ingredients (including the water), this gives a more accurate and consistent result, but that seems like way too much effort, and the end result by using easier measurements seem to come out pretty darn well anyway. I will provide the ingredients in all measurements, so you can use the method you prefer.

The yeast referred to in the recipe is the sourdough starter, but you can also use instant yeast. If you are going to use instant yeast, try to find a brand that has as little preservatives and chemicals included. For the best results, I really recommend you get your own sourdough starter/wild yeast.

Ingredients (for basic loaf)

  • Water (Weight: 375g/13.5oz; Volume: 2 cups) – temperature about 20 °C – 24 °C/68 °F – 75 °F
  • Starter OR instant yeast (preferred choice – use starter – for starter – Weight: 70g/2.5oz Volume: ¼ cup)
    (for instant yeast – use ¼ tsp. instant yeast)
  • Flour (Weight: 470g/16.66 Volume: 4 cups) *See general notes about the flour
  • Salt (Weight: 10g/0.35oz Volume: 2 tsp.) *See general notes about salt

Variations (optional ingredients)

Here are just some suggestions of additional ingredients that you can add to the bread, just to make it a bit more special (the measurements of the optional ingredients do not need to be precise (hey, it is not birth control 😉 ), it is according to your preference):

  • 2 – 3 grated carrots & 2 table spoons of caraway seeds
  • cup of chopped dates & cup of walnuts
  • 1/2 cup dried cranberries and 1/4 cup rosemary
  • cup of dried figs & cup of walnuts (for today’s potluck)
  • 1 – 2 bananas sliced & cup of pecan nuts
  • 1/2 cup – 1 cup mixed seeds (pumpkin, sunflower, flax)
  • 1/2 cup olives & 1/2 sundried tomatoes
  • 1/2 cup raisins (soaked in rooibos tea (redbush tea) or green tea)
  • panettone type ingredients, e.g. teaspoon of almond extract, 1/2 cup almond flakes, 1 tablespoon citrus zest, teaspoon of cinnamon, teaspoon of ginger, chopped dried fruits, replace some of the water for maple/agave syrup

If the optional ingredients are very moist, you can reduce the amount of water added to the batter or add additional 1 – 2 table spoons of flour to the mix.

Instructions

Before you start baking up a storm, please read all the notes first, just to make sure you understand the steps. You will only need to do this once, it is so easy, next time you can just mix up a batch in 5 minutes and then let time and nature do the rest.

1.  If you are making a sourdough loaf (using your wild yeast starter) you will need to first make sure your starter is active. Do this by feeding it and extend it according to instructions 6 – 12 hours before you need to use it. If you have not used your starter for a while, do this 2 – 3 times so that your starter is nice and active.

Before you start using the starter, remember to put some aside to keep your wild yeast starter going!

2.  Mixing the dough and bulk fermentation:

  1. Pour the water into the bowl, add the starter (or instant yeast) and mix well to incorporate.
  2. At this point, I add my variations (optional ingredients) to the mix. It helps to gauge the consistency of the dough.
  3. Add 2/3 of the flour and mix.
  4. Add salt and balance of flour, reserving about 2 tbsp.
  5. Once the dough is mixed well you can judge if you need the extra flour. If you do, add and mix again until no dry flour is visible. You should have a sticky, drop scone consistency. If it is too dry, add a bit more water.
  6. Cover the bowl and leave to bulk ferment at room temperature for 6 – 9 hours.
  7. If you want to retard the dough, you can leave it to ferment for 2 – 3 hours at room temperature, then place in the fridge for a further 6 – 12 hours.

3.  Forming and resting the dough:

  1. The dough is ready to shape once it looks nice and risen with a soft feel.
  2. If you have retarded the dough in the fridge, leave it at room temperature to warm up for about 3 – 4 hours.
  3. Dust your work surface with plenty of flour. Also dust your cloth or basket with flour (else your dough will stick to it… lesson learned :))
  4. Empty your dough gently onto the work surface, trying not to degas it too much.

    Dough after first fermentation is complete. Moved to floured surface to form the loaf.

  5. With your floured fingers and your scraper, pick up one end of the dough and stretch it over itself, repeat the same from the opposite side, then from the top and from the bottom.
  6. Sprinkle flour on the dough and make sure it is very well floured all round. (To reduce cleaning up, I roll the dough around on the work surface to pick up most of the excess flour.)

    Formed and floured dough, ready for 2nd phase proofing

  7. Move the dough onto the cloth with the “neat side” of the folded dough facing the cloth and the rough side facing up (the side will end up on the bottom of the pot.)

    Dough wrapped in floured napkin and in colander for for 2nd phase proofing/rising

  8. Let the dough rise for 1 1/2 – 2 hours until nice and plump (not quite double, more like 50% bigger). If you poke the dough, it should be quite elastic and the dent should ooze back to its original shape. This stage depends on the weather. If it is quite hot, reduce the time to 60 minutes.

    Dough after rising/proofing for 90 minutes (see difference in size from previous step)

  9. When you start this phase, set your timer for 90 minutes (this depends on the weather, it may be shorter, if very hot). After the initial time (60 – 90 minutes), place your pot and lid in the oven and turn the oven on to 230 °C – 250 °C/440 °F – 480 °F to heat up. You need about 30 minutes to get your oven and pot to the correct heat.

4.  Baking and cooling your loaf:

  1. When the oven and your pot is heated, and the dough is ready to be baked, take the pot out of the oven and empty the bread into the pot and cover with the hot lid.
  2. Give the pot a short shake to settle the loaf and return to the oven.
  3. Bake with the lid on for 35 minutes. (If your dough is slightly sticky/moist, you can leave it for another 5 minutes).
  4. Take the lid off and bake for a further 15 minutes to dry the crust and brown it.

    Bread after it has been baked – last 15 minutes with the lid removed

  5. Once you are happy with the colour of the crust, take it out of the oven, empty onto a cooling rack.
  6. The bread is ready when it sounds hollow if knocked on the base.
  7. Now for the hard part – the bread should br allowed to cool through before it is cut open, because the baking process continues while the steam escapes even though the loaf has been removed from the oven. This would be 2 – 3 hours mimimum.

    Voila! The final product. Lovely slices of fig and walnut whole wheat/ rye sourdough bread

Preparation notes:

  • Put starter aside before you start baking.
  • If you plan to use the starter in a day, leave it out to activate.
  • If you keep the starter in the refrigerator, take it out a couple of hours before replenishing it.
  • There is not much to do, but you need time to wait for the fermentation and rising of the dough. Plan accordingly.

General notes:

  • It is important to use good quality filtered water. You need to make sure that most/all of the chlorine is removed from the water. Spring water is also a great option.
  • Use the best quality ingredients you can find. Wherever possible, use organic.
  • Stone milled fresh flour is the best for nutrient and flavour rich bread. I mix the flours I use, my favourite combination is ½ rye flour and ½ whole wheat flour. You can also use wheat free flours, e.g. chickpea/rice flour, but for best results, try add at least ¼ whole wheat flour or rye flour.
  • Use flours without improvers and that have not been fortified.
  • Rye dough is more difficult to form and will be very sticky to work with, do the best you can, it is worth it.
  • Salt – the measurements are based on fine salt.  If you use rock salt, you may have to increase the measurement slightly.
  • Salt – try to use a good quality salt.  I use fine Himalayan crystal salt (pink salt), but depending on the bread variation you are using, you can add herb salt as well, e.g. sundried tomatoes and herb salt works really well.
  • If you are going to make a “sweeter” bread, e.g. banana pieces, raisins, etc.  you can reduce the salt to 1 teaspoon, but always add salt, it just enhances the flavour.
  • Add yeast separately from the salt. Salt inhibits yeast growth.
  • The dough should be well hydrated and somewhat wet. Depending on the flour you use, you may need to add more water. Do not stick to the measurements rigidly, adjust according to the feel of the dough. It must have a drop-scone consistency.
  • Altitude, humidity and temperature affect the time of fermentation.
  • Humidity affects the consistency of the dough.
  • Adjust the temperature of the water according to the weather – cold water in hot weather and warm water in cold weather.
  • The first fermentation takes the longest, it is the primary fermentation. This is when the bread develops texture and flavour.
  • It is important to ferment for at least 6 hours in around 20 °C – 24 °C/68 °F – 75 °F environment.
  • When in doubt, leave the dough longer during the first fermentation. However, over fermenting can result in a hard crust and poor colour.
  • You can slow the primary fermentation down by putting the dough in the refrigerator for some time – remember, the higher the temperature, the shorter the rising time.
  • If you slowed the primary fermentation process in the refrigerator, give it time to warm up a bit before shaping and baking the bread.
  • The second phase is usually referred to as resting, secondary fermentation or proofing.
  • In this phase, the bread may not always double in size.
  • When in doubt, rather proof for less time. Over proofing can result in a collapsed loaf with bad crumb structure and a hard crust.
  • If you are not sure how to judge the right time to put the bread in the oven, rather put the bread in the oven before it has risen too much. It will still grow in the oven.
  • Make sure that you use enough flour/bran so that the dough does not stick to the bread or proofing cloth.
  • Don’t over bake the bread. It will not keep as long, but will taste okay while fresh.
  • Try not to under bake the bread. It will not keep as long – it will go off in the centre and will have a sticky texture.
  • As hard as it is to do, never cut a hot loaf. It continues cooking while it cools. The larger and denser the loaf, the longer it will take to cool down.
  • If possible to wait that long, the bread will cut and taste better the next day.
  • It may take a couple of attempts before you start getting the bread just the way you like it. If in doubt, always go back to the written recipe and start over.
  • The fermentation times are guidelines – it takes a bit of time and experience to get it right.
  • When you add additional ingredients, the ingredients may absorb some moisture, e.g. if you add seeds and nuts.

Planning your time

  • I usually start the bread in the afternoon/evening before I bake it; leave it overnight for its initial fermentation. Form and bake it the next day.
  • In summer I start it in the morning and bake in the afternoon/evening.
  • A good rule of thumb is to work backwards from the time you want the bread to be ready, including the time it takes to cool down. Many breads can be baked a day before you need them, as a matter of fact, sourdough improves given a bit of maturing time.

I hope you enjoyed the dish and have saved some space for the next dish… Enjoy!

Let me know if you invent any other interesting variations.

Related posts

Go to the previous dish Go to the next dish


Strut your stuff – Johannesburg’s first veg pride walk

October 24, 2012

I am very excited to share 2 fun events with you.  Beauty Without Cruelty South Africa have arranged 2 super campaigns.

1. Vegan week – 24-31 October 2012

Vegan week

2. Johannesburg’s first Veg Pride Walk – 10 November 2012

JOHANNESBURG VEG PRIDE
November 10 at 12:30pm
JUTA STREET, BRAAMFONTEIN ~ ONE BLOCK AWAY FROM THE NEIGHBOURGOODS MARKET

Join the very first Beauty Without Cruelty Jo’burg Veg pride!

Come dressed as a vegetable, or wear it around your neck or on your head (or wherever you think it fits), or just join the fun march. Meet at 12:30 on the corner of Juta Street, just below the bridge. We will end at the entrance to the Neighbourgoods Market.

See on facebook for more details.

Any clever and creative ideas or suggestions for a costume and/or poster?


Sourdough bread starter

October 15, 2012

I attended a bread baking course some time ago and I have been baking bread regularly (once, maybe twice a week) since then.

I used to bake bread using instant yeast but now I use wild yeast.  The preparation process takes a bit longer, in time (not effort) but the end result and depth of flavour is definitely worth it.

This will be the first of a couple of posts.  I thought I’d start with documenting how to get a wild yeast starter started.

“When you have only two pennies left in the world, buy a loaf of bread with one, and a lily with the other.”
– Chinese proverb

Here is some information that I gathered about sourdough bread:

Sourdough bread is the outcome of a fermentation process that happens as a result of the activities of wild yeasts and other micro-organisms, transforming the mixture of flour and water from an unpalatable mass into a nourishing food that is easy to digest and packed with vitamins and minerals.

When making sourdough, a starter is added to the mixture of flour and water and to speed up the process and allows more control of the flavour and texture of the bread.

It is often the chemicals used in commercially baked bread that causes people to have wheat/gluten intolerance and when eating a more natural/whole type bread may reduce/eliminate many of the side effects of eating commercial breads.

The most common way of making bread is by using a fast fermentation process, using large amounts of commercial yeast together with flour, water and other additives to make bread that is not easily digested and goes stale or mouldy very fast. Yeast is used as a rising agent because time is not allowed for the natural fermentation process to take place.

Sourdough bread is made by using no commercial yeast at all; instead a small amount of pre-fermented starter, made of flour and water, is introduced into the dough.  The bread has a unique flavour due to the natural fermentation process.  The fermentation process releases enzymes crucial for our digestive system. (The fermentation process serves a similar purpose of soaking nuts prior to using them.)

The starter used in the bread is usually used and replenished from one baking to the next, each time feeding it with flour and water after each baking and then left to develop. It can be kept in the fridge and replenished at least once a week, to keep the starter active. It may seem like a lot of effort but the flavour improves if it is used and replenished more often.

The sourdough starter likes a routine (and it makes it easier for you to remember as well), so even when not using it, it should be replenished anyway.  There are many fantastic resources available for suggestions of what to do with the sourdough starter.
(I will try veganise some of the recipes and post them – watch this space 😀 )

Making a sourdough starter

(If you are lucky enough to know someone that already has a starter, I suggest you beg, borrow or steal some from them, it certainly is much easier in this instant gratification society that we live in… it is torture waiting for 7 – 10 days before you can actually start using it the first time.)

Ingredients

  • ½ cup white or whole wheat unbleached flour (it seems like a good starter flour is flour that includes malted barley).  You can substitute for rye flour, if you do not want any wheat flour in the starter
  • ½ cup rye/spelt flour
  • 1 cup filtered water
  • 1 tbsp pineapple juice (fresh not sweetened)

Instructions

  1. Mix all together in a glass jar and set in a comfortably warm place for 24 – 48 hours, mixing it once or twice a day.
    Do not use a jar that seals to tightly, you need to allow the culture to breathe.
    You should see bubbles on top of the mixture and it should have a pleasant smell.
  2. After the initial stage of 24 – 48 hours, add ½ cup water and ½ cup flour (could be rye flour, if you want a rye only starter).
    Mix well and leave for a further 24 hours.
    At this stage, you should see some rising and bubbles and the smell should be slightly sour but pleasant.
  3. Repeat the feeding (½ cup water and ½ cup flour).
    Leave for a further 24 hours.
  4. Discard half of the mixture and add 1 cup water and 1 cup flour.
    Mix and leave again for 24 hours.
    It should rice nicely during this time and be ready for use.
    If the starter is not rising, repeat step 4 again.
  5. Put the starter in a bigger jar (up to 4 times its size) and mark the level of the starter in the jar after mixing (this is a handy tip to see how much it has risen).
    The starter should rise at least double before using it.
  6. Feed the starter one more time before baking with it, just to ensure that it is active.

Notes:

  • Just to get into the lingo – When the starter is growing, it is called a ‘culture’. Only once it is stable and mature enough to bake with, is it referred to as a ‘starter’.
  • It is important to use good quality filtered water.  You need to make sure that most/all of the chlorine is removed from the water.  Spring water is also a great option.
  • Use the best quality ingredients you can find. Wherever possible, use organic.
  • Stone milled fresh flour is the best for nutrient and flavour rich bread.
  • Use flours without improvers and that have not been fortified.
  • The temperature of the room, jar, water will have an impact on the dough.  If it is too cold, it will not be very active. If it is very cold, use slightly warmed water (not too hot, you do not want to kill the starter).
  • Rule: cold weather takes a bit longer, hotter weather shortens the rising time.
  • The tablespoon of juice is optional.  I have read a couple of sites and most of the people just stick to good quality water (with no chlorine).  One site, did not use water at all but only used unsweetened pineapple or orange juice.
  • A great idea I saw from another blogger is to make your own wheat flour to start with. Get wheat berries and put in blender/coffee grinder to produce starter flour (the wild yeast is on the grains and you just need to provide the right conditions to wake it up).
  • It does seem to be a common behaviour to name the starter.  Some cute names that I have encountered are Stinky, Monster, Seymor, Cousin It.

Replenishing the starter

  1. 1 Tbsp starter
  2. Add ¼ cup water and shake vigorously.
    The theory is that this will introduce oxygen (which promotes yeast reproduction) into the mixture.
  3. Add ½ cup flour and mix well (can be done with a metal spoon).

Starter notes:

  • If not using the starter daily, keep it in the fridge to slow down the process.
  • If the starter is acting a little sluggish, substitute whole rye flour for about 5% of the white flour, for one feeding. Rye flour is great for really getting fermentation going.
  • If you plan to use the starter in a day and you are keeping it in the fridge, leave it out to activate.
  • If you keep the starter in the refrigerator, take it out a couple of hours before replenishing it.
  • Remember to feed the starter regularly, even if you are not using it.  Replenish the starter at least twice a week to keep it active.
  • The starter should always smell pleasantly sour.
  • If the starter has a foul smell or develops any kind of mould, discard it and start again.
  • If the starter develops a crust on top, peel it off and use the centre to extend the starter.
  • If you are going away and have to leave the starter behind (as normal people would do, I hope) – make a double batch, mix it well, put it in the fridge.  To activate it again, take off the crust and use the centre of the starter to continue.
  • The starter can also be dried by mixing in some flour and rubbing it until you get bread crumb consistency, then dry on a tray and store in a clean sealed container in the freezer.

Additional resources

(These sites are not vegan, but you can get some great tips from them)

  • Raising a starter – Wild Yeast Blog – link
  • Maintaining a starter – Wild Yeast Blog – link
  • Maintaining a starter – link
  • Wild yeast sourdough starter – link
  • Sourdough for home baking – Wild yeast starter – link – you can buy many different starters from this site

What’s next?  I will post some very easy sourdough bread recipes soon.

Related posts

Basic sourdough bread recipe


Humans are natural plant eaters

September 26, 2012

Next time someone gives you the excuse that humans are omnivores/carnivores, this link can provide some very useful information: Link

It compares various features of omnivores, carnivores and herbivores to determine the diet best suited for humans.

The link will also provide a detailed summary of the information gathered, a review of the evidence and also answers many counter arguments.  It is definitely a worthwhile read.

Humans are biologically herbivores
Carnivores
Omnivores
Herbivores
Humans
Facial muscles
Reduced to allow wide mouth gape Reduced Well-developed Well-developed
Jaw type
Angle not expanded Angle not expanded Expanded angle Expanded angle
Jaw joint location
On same plane as molar teeth On same plane as molar teeth Above the plane of the molars Above the plane of the molars
Jaw motion
Shearing; minimal side-to-side motion Shearing; minimal side-to-side motion No shear; good side-to-side, front-to-back No shear; good side-to-side, front-to-back
Major jaw muscles
Temporalis Temporalis Masseter and ptergoids Masseter and pterygoids
Mouth opening vs. head size
Large Large Small Small
Teeth: Incisors
Short and pointed Short and pointed Broad, flattened and spade-shaped Broad, flattened and spade-shaped
Teeth: Canines
Long, sharp, and curved Long, sharp and curved Dull and short or long (for defense), or none Short and blunted
Teeth: Molars
Sharp, jagged and blade-shaped Sharp blades and/or flattened Flattened with cusps vs. complex surface Flattened with nodular cusps
Chewing
None; swallows food whole Swallows food whole and/or simple crushing Extensive chewing necessary Extensive chewing necessary
Saliva
No digestive enzymes No digestive enzymes Carbohydrate digesting enzymes Carbohydrate digesting enzymes
Stomach type
Simple Simple Simple or multiple chambers Simple
Stomach acidity with food in stomach
≤ pH 1 ≤ pH 1 pH 4-5 pH 4-5
Length of small intestine
3-6 times body length 4-6 times body length 10-12+ times body length 10-11 times body length*
Colon
Simple, short, and smooth Simple, short, and smooth Long, complex; may be sacculated Long, sacculated
Liver
Can detoxify vitamin A Can detoxify vitamin A Cannot detoxify vitamin A Cannot detoxify vitamin A
Kidney
Extremely concentrated urine Extremely concentrated urine Moderately concentrated urine Moderately concentrated urine
Nails
Sharp claws Sharp claws Flattened nails or blunt hooves Flattened nails
From The Comparative Anatomy of Eating, by Milton R. Mills, M.D. * “Body length” measured from neck to anus, as with the other animals

Carbohydrate loading vs. protein loading

September 9, 2012

I am reading Thrive – The Vegan Nutrition Guide to optimal performance in sports and life by Brendan Brazier (link).  The book is very interesting but I found the section about nutrition before exercise, really interesting so I thought I would share the details.
There seems to be a new school of thought that protein loading before intense exercise instead of the carbohydrate loading, which used to be the pre-exercise preparation of choice.

“Eating too much protein before intense exercise will likely result in muscle cramping, since protein requires more fluid to be metabolized than carbohydrate or fat, and cramping occurs when the body is not properly hydrated. Also, protein is not what you want to have your body burning as fuel. Protein is for building muscle, not fuelling it.

When protein is consumed in place of carbohydrate immediately before exercise, and therefore burned as fuel, it burns “dirty”, meaning that toxins are created from its combustion. The production and elimination of toxins are a stress on the body and can cause a stress response, ultimately leading to a decline in endurance.” – Chapter 4 – Exercise for lifelong health (P108)

Too much protein is very bad for your kidney and liver and when I refer to healthy options of protein, it is always plant-based.


Fun fruit creations

August 2, 2012

The Engine2 team ran a very fun contest a couple of weeks ago, where they encouraged people to create watermelon cakes.  I just loved how creative some people are.  I want to share some of my favourite creations with you.

 

 

 

I then found this fruit salad idea from a very entertaining blog: link

 

I am sure that anybody will be very happy to tuck into fruit when presented like this (if you ever needed a reason to eat more fruit).


Philip Wollen – Makes blazing animal rights speech

June 27, 2012

Here is a link to a brilliant speech by Philip Wollen (Australian Philanthropist, Former VP of Citibank):  Speech

It is so good, I have also attached the transcript as well:  Philip Wollen speech

The larger debate consists of six speakers (including Peter Singer), three that make the case for getting animals off of the menu and three that make the case against it. Wollen is a former VP of Citibank and Australian philanthropist who is known to keep out of the limelight. But, man, did he come to the table for this debate to deliver a huge performance and a powerful message. Bravo!  To watch the full debate here is the link: Full debate

Did it change your mind about anything?